用户注册 现有 341 名学员在线学习
语言考试
当前位置:语言考试 > 备考指导 > 语法
英语四级语法指导
作者:零点启航教育 来源:互联网 发布日期:2014-01-11
0
 

  英语四级语法指导:词序,特殊句型,反意疑问句

1.词序

  当多个形容词共同修饰一个名词时,在意义上同名词关系最密切的词最靠近该名词,其排列次序为“A + B + C + D + E + F + G + 被修饰的名词。其中:A. 表示年龄、新旧的形容词,如old, young等。B. 表示大小、长短、高低、重量的形容词,如little, big, long, heavy等。 C. 表示形态、形状的形容词,如round, square等。D. 表示颜色的形容词,如red, white, green等。E. 表示国籍、地区、出处的形容词,如British, southern, Italian等。F. 表示物质、材料的形容词,如wooden, rocky等。G. 表示用途、类别、目的、与有关等的形容词,也包括起形容词作用的名词和分词,如medical, writing, geography等。其他形容词放在上述A类形容词之前。例如:

  a small round brown wooden table

  a useless, old, big, heavy, red geography book

  a valuable old French writing desk

  a strong young Chinese boy student

 2.一些特殊的句型

  1) there is no point in doing sth.

  该句型意为是无济于事的/没有什么用的。可以用very little not much等来代替no。其中的point是不可数名词,作目的用处解。

  There is very little point in arguing with him.

  2) have difficulty (or trouble) in doing sth.

  该句型意为有困难。其中的in可以省略;其中的difficultytrouble是不可数名词,不能有复数形式。也可以用there is difficulty(or trouble) in doing sth.表达相同的意思。

  There was little difficulty in finding him.

  3) keep (sb. or sth. ) busy doing sth.

  该句型意为使一直忙着做某事。需注意的是虽然busy with doing sth.busy in doing sth.都是正确的,但考题中常考busy doing sth.句型。但如果busy后面跟的是名词,则要用busy with sth.

  We are busy preparing for the examination.

  4) feel like doing sth.

  该句型意为想做某事,且feel like后只能跟动名词,而不能跟动词不定式。此外,feel like后还可跟名词或代词,表示想要某物

  I was so angry that I felt like throwing something at him.

  I feel like beer tonight.

3.反意疑问句

  在具体运用反意疑问句时应注意以下几点:

  1) 如果陈述句部分是一个含有宾语从句的复杂句,则反意疑问部分的谓语动词和主语代词要与主句的谓语动词和主语相对应。

  He never said she would come, did he?

  You told me I had passed the exam, didn’t you?

  但是如果陈述句部分是 “I (don’t) think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect, fancy, reckon+宾语从句的结构时,反意疑问部分的谓语动词和主语代词要与宾语从句的谓语动词和主语相对应,并且要注意否定的转移。

  I suppose you are not serious, are you?

  She imagines that people like her, don’t they?

  I don’t believe she knows it, does she? (don’t的否定意义后移而不用doesn’t)

  I didn’t expect she would come, would she? (didn’t的否定意义后移而不用wouldn’t)

  2) 如果陈述句部分是祈使句,则反意疑问部分一般用“will you”。在否定祈使句后还是用“will you”

  Read the text, will you?

  Don’t be late, will you?

  如果陈述句部分是以Let’s开头的祈使句,则反意疑问部分一般用“shall we”;如果是以Let us开头的祈使句,则反意疑问部分一般用“will you”

  Let’s have a party tonight, shall we?

  Let us go home, will you?

  3) 如果陈述句部分带有never, nothing, nowhere, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, barely, little, few等否定词或半否定词,反意疑问部分的动词要用肯定式。

  You can hardly believe this, can you?

  He has few good reasons for staying, has he? 

英语四级语法指导:平行结构,宾语补足语

1.平行结构

  在英语中,当两个或两个以上的同等成分(主语,谓语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,宾语补足语等)并列时,要求它们的词性或结构相同,即名词对名词,介词短语对介词短语,分词对分词,句子对句子等等。这就是英语的平行结构准则。一般在使用并列连词如and, but, or, neither … nor, either … or, not only .. but also, both … and, more(less) … than, as well asrather… than等时,要注意不要违反平行结构准则。

  He likes watching TV more than reading books.

  The soldier preferred to die rather than surrender.

  We saw Tom walking towards the river, taking off his clothes and plunging into the water.

Censorship prevents a movie from being shown or a book being sold.

2. 使役动词后的宾语补足语

  使役动词除了要有宾语之外还要加上宾语补足语才能使句子的意义完整。常用的使役动词有:have, want, make, get, leave, set, let等。可以担当使役动词宾语补足语的有名词,形容词,介词短语,动词不定式和分词等。

  All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

  A good night’s rest will set you right.

  Note:

  动词不定式可以担当使役动词的宾语补足语,但在make, let, have等使役动词后,动词不定式作宾语补足语时不用to

  He made her give up the opportunity.

  What would you have me do?

  Her pride would not let her do this.

  分词也可以担当使役动词的宾语补足语。现在分词表示正在进行的主动意义,而过去分词表示已经完成的被动意义。

  Her remark left me wondering what he was driving at.

  The joke set them all laughing.

  He managed to get the job done on time.

  I’ve just had some new photos taken.

 

英语四级语法指导:强调句型,常考倒装结构

1.强调句型

  这里讲的强调句主要是以it为引导词的分裂句。其构成形式为:It is (was) +被强调部分+ that(who, which) + 句子的其他部分。被强调的部分通常为主语、宾语和状语。

  It is only when one is ill that one realizes the value of health.

  It is what you will do that is essential.

  Note:

  在被强调部分的后面,一般用that引出句子的其他部分。但是如果强调的部分是表示人的名词,那么也可用who;如果是指物的名词也可用which

  It was Jane that/who lent me the money.

  It was this novel that/which they talked about last night.

  如果强调的是原因状语从句,只能用because引导,不能由since, aswhy引导。

  It was because(不用sinceas) he had never had the opportunity that John hadn’t learned to drive.

  有三类句子成分不可以进行强调,即表语、谓语动词和由though, although, whereas等引导的从句。

  It is although he is young that he can speak four languages. ()

  Although he is young, he can speak four languages. ()

  It is whereas he prefers pop song that I like classical music. ()

I like classical music whereas he prefers pop songs. ()

2.常考倒装结构

1) 当表示否定或基本否定的词或词组位于句首作状语时用倒装。这类词或词组常用的有:never, nowhere, seldom, rarely, little, hardly, scarcely, barely, not until, not only, by no means, in no time, under no circumstances, under no condition, in no way, in no case, at no time, on no account等。

  Never have I heard it before.

  Nowhere can I find my lost watch.

  Under no circumstance should a student cheat in the exam.

  Not only was Churchill a statesman, but also a poet.

  Note: “no sooner … than”“hardly/scarcely … when/before”位于句首时用倒装。该结构表示…”,在时态上主句一般用过去完成时,whenthan引导的从句用一般过去时。

  Hardly/Scarcely had I got home when/before the bell rang.

  No sooner had the performance begun than the lights went out.

  2) here, there, then, thus, only, hence, little等副词位于句首,句中主、谓用倒装。

  Here is the book for you.

  There goes the bell.

  Then came the order to take off.

  Thus arose the division between the developed and developing countries.

  3) “so/such … that”结构中的sosuch 位于句首时用倒装。

  So cold was it at night that I could hardly fall asleep.

  Such was the force of explosion that all the windows were broken.

  4) 分句以so, neither, nor, no more等副词位于句首,表明前面句子中所说明的情况也使用于后面的句子时用倒装。

  Copper is a good conductor. So are many other metals.

  He didn’t see the film last night, neither did she.

 

英语四级语法指导:宾语从句,状语从句,定语从句

1.宾语从句

  1) 及物动词后的宾语从句

  有些动词的宾语从句前还可有一个间接宾语。

  I remember that we have learned this word before.

  I don’t understand what you have said.

  She asked the teacher how she could learn English well.

  2) 介词的宾语从句

  It depends on whether you want to do it or not

  There is disagreement among economists about what money is and how money is measured.

  Note: 在介词in后面跟that引导的宾语从句中,in that可看成是一个固定的搭配,表示因为方面

  The evidence is invalid in that it was obtained through illegal means.

A turtle differs from all other reptiles in that it has its body encased in a protective shell of its own.

2.状语从句

   状语从句中以下四种从句考得较多,这里给予简单介绍。

  1) 时间状语从句

  时间状语从句主要由以下连词引导:when, whenever, as, while, since, until, till, before, after, as soon as, once, hardly (scarcely) … when, no sooner … than

  I will discuss the matter with you when we meet tomorrow.

  He didn’t go to sleep until he finished doing his homework.

  You have changed a lot since we met last time.

  时间状语从句还可由某些可充当连词的名词(the moment, the instant, every time,)和副词(instantly, directly)引导:

  I will tell you the news the instant I know.

  Directly the teacher came in everyone was quiet.

  Note:

  ① before除了可表示之前外,还可用来强调主句所表达的时间、距离很长或花费的力量相比较大,可译为“…(“not … before” 可用来强调主句所表达的时间、距离很短或花费的力量相比较小,可译为“…”)

  It was a long time before I got to sleep again.

  They had not been married a month before they quarreled.

  如果位于when引导的分句之前的主句使用过去进行时、过去完成时或“was/were about to, was/were on the point of”等结构时,when表示突然发生某事,可译为正在突然等。这时,不能够用aswhile来代替when

  I was walking on the street when I ran into my old friend John.

  She had just fallen asleep when the telephone rang.

  We were about to leave when it began to rain.

  2) 条件状语从句

  条件状语从句主要由以下连词引导:if, unless, providing/provided (that), suppose/supposing (that), on condition (that), as/so long as, in case等。

  So long as you work hard, you will surely achieve good results in examinations.

  I shall return next Thursday unless something unexpected happens.

  I will go provided that you go with me.

  Please give this letter to John in case he comes.

  3) 让步状语从句

  让步状语从句主要由以下连词引导:though, although, even if, even though, whatever, however, whoever, wherever, no matter how/ what/ where/ when等。以下介绍几种较特殊的让步状语从句。

  (1) while引导的让步状语从句多放在句首,while相当于although,表示尽管虽然

  While I admit I did it, I didn’t intend to.

  While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you.

  (2) 短语“even now/then/so”相当于“though it is/was true”,表示尽管如此尽管这样

  The fire was out, but even so, the smell of smoke was strong.

  I’ve tried my best, but even now/then she is not satisfied.

  (3) as引导的让步状语从句要倒装。

  Child as he was, he could speak four languages.

  Hard as she tried, she failed to get the job.

  4) 比较状语从句

  比较状语从句主要由以下连词引导:(not) as … as, (not) the same as, (not) such … as, not so … as, than, the + 比较级…, the +比较级等。

  We have had a lot more rainfall this year than we had last year.

  She can speak English as fluently as her teacher (can).

3.定语从句

  1. 先行词为all, anything, something, nothing, everything, much, little, none等不定代词时,关系代词一般只用that,不用which。在大多数情况下that可以省略.

  Please tell me everything (that) you know about the matter.

  That’s all (that) we can do at the moment.

  2. as引出的限制性定语从句

  such … as的结构中as可作关系代词,引出限制性定语从句。有时和same连用,在从句中可作主语、宾语或表语等。

  Such people as were recommended by him were reliable.

  I’ve never seen such a talented young man as he is.

  I have the same trouble as you (have).

  3. as引出的非限制性定语从句

  as可作关系代词引出非限制性定语从句,代替整个主句,通常译为“()一样“()一样等。as引导的从句一般用逗号与主句隔开,可以位于主句的前面、中间或后面.

  I live a long way from work, as you know.

  She did not, as her friend had feared, break down.

  As is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

  4. 分隔式定语从句

  定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后,但有时会被其他句子成分与先行词隔开,从而构成分隔式定语从句。

  The days are gone when power politics worked.

  A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you French.

  5.介词+关系代词(which/whom)引出的定语从句

  如果关系代词(which/whom)在定语从句中作介词的宾语,那么这个介词可以提到从句前,构成介词+关系代词(which/whom)+定语从句。在这种结构中关系代词不可以用that

  This is a subject about which we might argue for a long while.

  The four travelers with whom I shared the room were pleasant people.

  6.关系代词在限制性定语从句中常可以省略,一般有以下几种情况:

  1) 关系代词在从句中作直接宾语时,在大多数情况下可以省略。

  This is something (that) you must always keep in mind.

  The man (whom) you just met is our manager.

  关系代词作介词宾语时,介词位于句尾时关系代词可以省略;介词位于关系代词之前时则关系代词不能省略。

  This is the room (which) Churchill was born in.

  This is the room in which Churchill was born.(which不可省略)

  2) 关系代词作主语时一般不能省略,但如果关系代词在由there … be存在句构成的定语从句中作主语时常可省略。

  This is the only book (that) there is on this subject.

  The old professor made full use of the time (that) there was left to him to continue his research.

  3) way后面的定语从句中in whichthat通常省略。

  That’s the way (that/in which) I look at it.

  I don’t like the way (that/in which) you laugh at her.

  7.非限制性定语从句

  非限制性定语从句修饰先行词或整个主句,起补充说明的作用,如果省略掉,原句句意仍保持完整。非限制性定语从句要用逗号与主句隔开,其引导词不能用that。非限制性定语从句属于正式语体。经常考到的非限制性定语从句有以下三种。

  1) whichas引导的非限制性定语从句。whichas代表整个主句。

  He said that he had never seen her before, which was not true.

  China is still a developing country, which is known to all of us.

  2) 介词+关系代词引导的非限制性定语从句。

  He sent her a letter, in which he said that he was sorry for what he had done to her.

  He failed to pass the exam, because of which his parents scolded him.

  4) 数词、代词或名词+of +关系代词引导的非限制性定语从句。

  He had three sons, one of whom was my son’s classmate.

  There are about twenty students in this course, most of whom are freshmen.

  They are two different words, the spellings of which are easily confused.

 

英语四级语法指导:时态,分词,不定式

一.时态

  1. 现在完成时、过去完成时以及将来完成时之间的区别

  1) 现在完成时:

  构成:have / has +过去分词

  语法意义及要点:

  A. 现在完成时表示一个过去开始的状态或动作持续到现在并可能继续持续下去,常同表示一段时间的状语连用。如so far, up to now, since, for a long time等。

  --He has worked as a teacher for many years.

  --Up till now, nothing has gone wrong.

  B. 现在完成时表示一个过去发生的对现在仍有影响的动作或事件。常与不确定的过去时间状语连用,如yet, just, before, recently;也同表示频度时间状语连用,如often, ever, never, sometimes, several times;还可同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用,如now, today, this morning等。但不能同特定的过去时间状语连用(last year , in 1997)

  --I have never learned Japanese before.

  --We have been quite busy lately (recently).

  C. 在时间或条件状语从句中,当表示将来完成时的意义时,要用现在完成时来代替将来完成时。

  --We’ll start at 5 o’clock if it has stopped raining by then.

  --I shall go to see you when I have finished my homework.

  Note: 行为不能持续的瞬间动词(Instantaneous Verb), arrive, begin, come, go, start, leave, die, join等通常不能用于这一语法意义,即该类动词在现在完成时中不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。

  --He has joined the army for five years. ()

  --He has been in the army for five years. ()

  2) 过去完成时:

  构成:had +过去分词

  语法意义及要点:

  过去完成时表示某一动作或情况发生在过去某一时刻之前并持续到该时刻。

  --David and Jenny had known each other for a long time before their marriage.

  --They had got everything ready before the party began.

  Note: 与现在完成时截然不同的是过去完成时可以与表示具体过去的时间状语连用。

  --He said that he had seen her the day before yesterday.

  3) 将来完成时:

  构成:shall / will + have +过去分词

  语法意义及要点:

  将来完成时表示某一动作在将来某一时刻或将来某一动作之前已经完成或发生。

  --He will have graduated from high school before his next birthday.

  --The shop will have closed already before you get there.

  2. 哪些动词不能用于进行时

  1) 表示状态的动词,如be, seem, appear, become, get等。

  He is being a used-car dealer.()

  He is a used-car dealer.()

  She is seeming always about to smile.()

  She seems always about to smile.()

  2) 表示感官感觉的动词,如see(看见), hear(听见),feel(感觉出), taste(尝出),smell(闻到)等。

  The medicine is tasting bitter. ()

  The medicine tastes bitter. ()

  I was seeing a car passing by our house. ()

  I saw a car passing by our house. ()

  3) 表示拥有的动词,如have, own, possess, belong, contain, hold等。

  He is owning a luxurious car. ()

  He owns a luxurious car. ()

  The book is belonging to her. ()

  The book belongs to her.()

  4) 表示思想状况、态度的动词,如believe, think, know, understand, agree, approve, consider, expect, forget, guess, hesitate, hope, imagine, mean, realize, remember, suppose, trust, want, wish等。

  I’m thinking that he is right. ()

  I think that he is right. ()

  I’m understanding your feelings. ()

  I understand your feelings. ()

  5) 表示情感、愿望的动词,如admire, appreciate, care, enjoy, like, love, hate, detest, regret等。

  He is loving his daughter very much. ()

  He loves his daughter very much. ()

  I’m regretting to say we cannot come. ()

  I regret to say we cannot come. ()

  3. 时态的呼应

  时态的呼应又称时态一致(Sequence of Tenses),指的是某些从句里的动词谓语时态必须和主句里的时态保持一致。

  如果主句里的谓语动词是过去时态(过去时或过去完成时),那么从句的谓语动词时态也相应地要用过去时。时态的呼应主要发生在间接引语和宾语从句中,但其他从句有时也存在时态一致的问题。

  --He explained that he had learned Chinese for many years.(现在完成时变为过去完成时)

  --He said he had been collecting materials on that subject for a long time.(过去进行时变为过去完成进行时)

  --He told me that they would have completed that project by the end of the year.(将来完成时变为过去将来完成时)

  虽然主句用了过去时等,如果从句表示的是科学真理、客观事实或某人()的经常性特点时,其时态可以不必遵守时态呼应的规则而仍用一般现在时。

  --Galileo proved that the earth revolves round the sun.

  --The teacher told the students that knowledge is power.

  如果从句中有一个表示绝对过去时间的状语,就不必把一般过去时变为过去完成时。

--He said that he joined the Red Army in 1933.

二.分词

  1. 现在分词与过去分词的区别

  现在分词与过去分词的区别主要体现在时间和语态上。现在分词表示正在进行的动作并表示主动的意义,而过去分词表示已经完成的动作并表示被动的意义。比较:

  a changing world(一个变化着的世界);a changed world( 一个已经起变化的世界)

  surprising news(令人惊讶的消息);surprised people(感到惊讶的人们)

  2. 分词作状语

  作状语时,表示时间、原因、方式、结果、条件、让步和伴随情况等。另外,作状语时,它的逻辑主语应与句子的主语一致。

  Hearing the news, he heaved a sigh of relief.

  Given another chance, I’ll do it much better.

  3. 分词作定语

  分词常用来修饰名词或代词作定语。单个的分词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;分词短语作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之后。但有些单个的过去分词作定语时,也可放在被修饰词之后。

  He’s a spoilt child.

  The man standing over there is our new English teacher.

  Where are we to get the material needed?

  4. 分词作宾语补足语

  分词可在感觉动词和使役动词后作宾语补足语。常用的感觉动词主要有:see, hear, notice, watch, find, observe, smell等。常用的使役动词主要有:get, have, keep, leave, set, make, let等。此外,分词还可在want, like, wish, order等表示希望、要求、命令等意义的动词后作宾语补足语。

  She watched her baby sleeping.

  I got my hair cut.

  I don’t want you worrying about me.

  5. 分词与连词的连用

  分词可与各种连词(如:when, while, once, until, if, unless, though, although, even if, as, as if, as though)连用。连词+分词(短语)的结构在句中作状语,相当于状语从句。

  She’ll get nervous when speaking in public.

  He went on talking, though continually interrupted.

  6. 分词的独立结构

  分词作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主语应该一致;否则,分词应有自己的逻辑主语,构成分词的独立结构。独立结构一般位于句首,作伴随状语以及在科技文章中表示附加说明时,它常位于句末。分词的独立结构由名词、代词+分词构成,可以表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况等。

  Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Wednesday.

  Her son having been sent to school, she began to do some shopping.

  He returned three days later, his face covered with mud and his clothes torn into pieces.

  There were two parties yesterday evening, each attended by some stuents.

三.不定式

  1. 某些动词后要接不定式

  某些及物动词后只能接不定式作宾语,其中最常用的动词有agree, afford, arrange, appear, ask, attempt, care, choose, continue, decide, demand, desire, determine, expect, fail, fear, forget, hate, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, regret, remember, seek, tend, try, volunteer, want, wish等。

  What do you plan to do tomorrow?

  She hated to move from such a nice village.

  In class teachers should try to get feedback from their students

  2. 不定式的被动式

  不定式有被动式,当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,不定式要用被动式,在句中可作主语,宾语,定语,状语,复合宾语等。作定语时,通常表示在谓语动作后将要发生的动作。

  The last question to be discussed today is how to do the job more efficiently.

  She preferred to be given more difficult work to do.

  3. 不定式的完成式

  当不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,不定式要用完成式,在句中可作宾语,状语以及构成复合宾语,复合谓语。

  She seemed to have heard about the news already.

  He was believed to have been a very rich man.

  4. 不定式的完成被动式

  当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,且不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,不定式要用完成被动式,在句中可作主语,宾语或构成复合宾语,复合谓语。

  The forest fire is reported to have been put out last night.

  It is supposed to have been finished without referring to any reference books.

  5. 带逻辑主语的不定式短语

  不定式可以有逻辑主语,其构成形式为“for +代词的宾格(或名词) +不定式。 带逻辑主语的不定式短语可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或状语等。

  It is not easy for you to catch up with them in a short time.

  I think it better for you to see the doctor.

  What we want is for you to understand the matter clearly.

  I sent him some pictures for him to see what Paris is like.

  6. 带疑问词的不定式短语

  不定式前可以加某些疑问代词,如whowhatwhich,或疑问副词,如whenwherehowwhy等,构成一种特殊的不定式短语,可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或状语等。

  How to improve English is often discussed among the students.

  We haven’t decided when to visit the place.

  The most difficult thing in learning English is how to speak the language well.

  You haven’t answered my question where to get these books.

  7. 某些动词后的不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式不带to,这些动词是feel, have, hear, let, make, notice, see, watch等。

  Suddenly I felt the atmosphere in the room become tense.

  I often hear them sing this song.

 

英语四级语法指导:动名词,插入语

 一.动名词

  1. 某些动词后要接动名词

  某些及物动词后能用动名词而不能用不定式作宾语,其中最常用动词的有admit, avoid, appreciate, complete, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, involve, imagine, can’t help, mind, miss, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, resent, risk, resist, suggest等。

  She suggested spending another day in the mountain area.

  There’s no way to escape doing the work.

  She is considering asking her employer for a rise.

  Note:

  needwantrequiredeserve等动词后的动名词相当于不定式的被动式

  The clock needs/wants repairing. (=The clock needs/wants to be repaired)

  The disabled deserve respecting. (=The disabled deserve to be respected.)

  likehateprefer等动词后,如果表示一般倾向,则用动名词作宾语;如果指具体的某次发生在将来的行动,则要用不定式。

  I like reading books of this kind, but I don’t like to read that book.

  She prefers walking to cycling.

  I prefer to stay at home today.

  rememberforgetregret等动词后,如果用动名词作宾语,则表示该宾语的动作发生在动词谓语的动作之前;如果用不定式作宾语,则表示宾语的动作发生在动词谓语的动作之后

  I remembered locking the door. (=I remembered that I had locked the door.)

  I remembered to lock the door (=I remembered that I was to lock the door.)

  I regret telling you about it. (=I regret that I told you about it.)

  I regret to tell you he has fallen ill. (=I regret that I am to tell you he has fallen ill.)

  2. 动名词作介词的宾语

  动名词可作介词的宾语,与介词一起构成介词短语,在句中作定语、状语或表语。

  His dream of becoming a successful writer has come true.

  She left without saying goodbye to us.

  动名词作介词的宾语常用在某些词组后面。这类常用的词组主要有:be accustomed to, believe in, confess to, dream of, feel like, give up, insist on, be interested in, look forward to, object to, have an (no) objection to, pay attention to, put off, be responsible for, succeed in, be tired of, be (get) used to, worry about,等。

  He is used to living on his own.

  He has made up his mind to give up smoking.

  3. 带逻辑主语的动名词

  动名词可以有逻辑主语,其构成形式为名词或代词的所有格+动名词。带逻辑主语的动名词又称为动名词的复合结构,在句中用作主语,宾语,表语和介词的宾语。在非正式语体中,如果动名词的复合结构在句中作宾语,也可以宾格来充当动名词的逻辑主语。但考生需注意的是,在各种英语测试中,专家们仍坚持在正式语体中用代词的所有格来作动名词的逻辑主语。

  Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected.

  I appreciated her devoting herself to the cause of education.

  Your mother will be astonished at your coming home so late.

What we felt uneasy about was Li Ming’s having too much confidence in himself.

二.插入语

  插入语通常是说话者对所表达意思的一种补充、强调、解释或者是说话人的一种态度。它的位置比较灵活,常常会用逗号或者破折号和其他部分隔开,但是在语法上不会影响其他成分。

  插入语六大用法小结

  例1 _____the more expensive the camera the better its quality.

  A.General speaking B.Speaking general

  C.Generally speaking D.Speaking generally

  小结:许多分词短语可以用作插入语,这样的分词短语有:strictly speaking(严格地说)generally considering(一般认为) judging from……(根据……判断)等。

  例2 Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea. ____neither of them could swim.

  A.In fact B.Luckily C.Unfortunately D.Naturally

  小结:常用作插入语的副词或副词短语有:indeed(的确)surely(无疑)however(然而)frankly(坦率地说)obviously(显然)naturally(天然地)luckily (happily) for sb.(算某人幸运)fortunately(幸好)strangely(奇怪)briefly(简单地说)等。

  例3 Your performance in the driving test didn’t reach the required standard_____ you failed.

  A.in the end B.after all  C.in other words D.at the same time

  小结:常用作插入语的介词短语有:in conclusion(总之)in a word(简而言之)in short(简而言之)in general(一般说来)in a sense(在某种意义上)in my view(在我看来)in his opinion(按照他的看法)in fact(事实上)at first(首先) in addition(此外)of course(当然)to my surprise(使我惊奇的)to her regret(使她遗憾的)for example(例如)等。

  例4 It is so nice to hear from her._____we last met more than thirty years ago.

  A.What‘s more B.That is to say C.In other words D.Believe it or not

  小结:用简短的句子结构作插入语,它们常置于句中或句末。这类简短的句子有:I am sure(我可以肯定地说)I believe(我相信)do you know(你知道吗)you see(你明白)I’m afraid(恐怕)it is said(据说)I suppose(我想)what’s more(而且)what’s worse(更糟糕的是)that is(也就是说)what is important(重要的是)等。

  例5 _____ with youI have no money to spare.

  A.To be frank B.What’s more  C.In addition D.However

  小结:常用作插入语的不定式短语有:to be sure(无疑地)to sum up(概括地说)to tell the truth(老实说)等。

  例6 _____ he should have done such a thing.

  A.Speaking general B.Strange to say  C.Luckily D.Of course

  小结:常用作插入语的形容词或其短语有:true(真的)funny(真可笑)needless to say(不用说)most important of all(最为重要)worse still(更糟糕的)even better(更好)等。

  Bill Gates, the billionaire Microsoft chairman without a single earned university degree, is by his success raising new doubts about the worth of the business world’s favorite academic title: the MBA (Master of Business Administration).

  The problem, most participants in the debate acknowledge, is that the MBA has acquired an aura (光环) of future riches and power far beyond its actual importance and usefulness.

  Opinion surveys in the world’s two largest economies—Japan and the United States—show consumerist definitions of success becoming ever more prevalent.

 

英语四级语法指导:非谓语动词,强调句

一.非谓语动词

  几种做句子成分的情况

  1.不定式和动名词作主语的区别

  (1)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。

  不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。

  Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验)

  Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验)

  (2)不定式做主语,一般用it当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。

  It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

  2.不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别

  (1)不定式作表语

  1)不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。

  To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事等于未做。

  What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干。

  2)如果主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)

  To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。

  (2)动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。

  Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。

  His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。

  (3)分词作表语

  分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。

  interesting使人感到高兴--interested感到高兴的

  exciting令人激动的--excited感到激动的

  puzzling令人费解的--puzzled感到费解的

  satisfying令人满意的---satisfied感到满意的

  旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。Travelling is interesting but tiring.

  The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。

  The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。

  They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

  3.不定式和动名词作宾语的区别

  begin开始 determine决定 manage设法 agree同意 love 喜欢 fail不能 plan计划

  (2)有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语

  acknowledge承认,admit 承认 dislike不喜欢,讨厌 advocate:提倡,主张 complete完成

  appreciate 感激,欣赏 avoid避免 enjoy享有,喜爱 delay延迟 escape逃跑,逃避 deny否认

  consider 考虑 fancy幻想,爱好 mind 介意 miss错过 finish完成,结束不得 resist抵抗,阻止 imagine设想 postpone延迟,延期 practise 实行,实践 suggest建议 prevent阻止

  keep保持 quit放弃停止 loathe非常讨厌,厌恶 recall回想

  例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

  我很感激两年前给我出国学习的机会。

  (3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别

  1)forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)

  forget doing忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)

  2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事

  stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事

  3)remember to do 记住去做某事(未做)

  remember doing记得做过某事(已做)

  4) regret to do对要做的事遗憾

  regret doing对做过的事遗憾、后悔

  5)try to do努力、企图做某事

  try doing试验、试一试某种办法

  6) mean to do打算,有意要

  mean doing意味着

  7)need, want, deserve +动名词表被动意义;+不定式被动表示(修、清理等)”意思。

  Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

  You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要记着是明天动身。

  I regret to have to do this but I have no choice.我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没办法。

  You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。

  Let's try doing the work some other way.让我们试一试用另外一种办法来做这工作。

  4.不定式、现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别

  The child standing over there is my brother.站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。

  The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房间是我们的教室。

  The book writen by professor Smith is very popular in China now. 由史密斯教授写的那本书在中国非常受欢迎

  I have find my watch lost.

  5.不定式和分词作状语的区别

  (1)现在分词与过去分词作状语的区别。

  1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。

  Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help.

  由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。

  2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。

  Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.

  6.非谓语动词常考的其它结构

  (1)疑问词+不定式结构

  疑问词whowhatwhichwhenwherehow后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语。它在句中可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。

  When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决定。(主语)

  I don't know what to do.我不知道该怎么办。(宾语)

  The difficulty was how to cross the river.困难在于如何过河。(表语)

  I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告诉你哪里可以买到此书。(双重宾语)

  (2)不带to的不定式

  1)在表示生理感觉的动词后的不定式不带to

  这类词有: feel 觉得 observe 注意到,看到 overhear听到 watch注视 listen to perceive察觉,感知 notice注意 see看见 look at hear

  On seeing the young child fell into the lakeEric sprang to his feetand went on the rescue.

  2)另一类是某些使役动词,如make, lethave等。

  Let him do it.让他做吧。

  I would have you know that I am ill.我想让你知道我病了。

  上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时.其后的不定式一般需带to

  He was seen to come. The boy was made to go to bed early.

  3)do nothing/anything/everything but(except)结构中。

  例如:Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看电视别的什么也没有干。

  但是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothinganythingeverything”,那么but(except)所跟的不定式则仍须带。

  The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其它什么都没有说。

  There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他们没有别的办法。

  7.非谓语动词中的有关句型

  (1)动名词作主语的句型

  1)It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用。

  It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。

  It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。

  2) It is + useless (nice, goodinteresting, expensive等形容词)+ doing sth.

  It is useless speaking.光说没用。

  It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。

It is good playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。

二.强调句

  英语中表示强调的8种方式

  1.用形容词"very""single"等表示强调

  eg.You are the very person I'm looking for.

  你就是我要找的那个人。

  Red Army fought a battle on this very spot.

  红军就在此地打过一仗。

  Not a single person has been in the office this afternoon.

  今天下午竟然没有一个人来过办公室。

  2.用反身代词表示强调

  e.g.I myself will see her off at the station.

  我将亲自到车站为她送行。

  You can do it well yourself.

  你自己能做好这件事情。

  3.用助词"do/does/did+动词原形"表示强调

  e.g.The baby is generally healthybut every now and then she does catch a cold.

  那孩子的健康状况尚好,但就是偶尔患感冒。

  Do be quiet.I told you I had a headache.

  务必安静,我告诉过你,我头疼。

  4."...and that""...and those",等结构表示强调

  e.g.They fulfilled the taskand that in a few days.

  他们在几天内完成的就是那项任务。

  I gave her some presentsand those the day before yesterday.

  前天我送给她的就是那些礼物。

  5.用双重否定结构表示强调

  e.g.There is no reason why this new immigrant should not have the same success.

  完全有理由相信这些新移民应该拥有相同的成功。

  A man can never have too many ties.

  一个男人有再多的领带也不为过。

  I can't thank you too much.

  我无论怎样感谢你都不过份。

  A mother can never be patient enough with her child.

  I am not unfaithful to you.我对你无比忠诚。

  6.用短语"in every way""in no way""by all means""by no means""only too""all too""but too""in heaven""in the world""in hell""on earth""under the sun"等表示强调

  e.g.His behaviour was in every way perfect.

  他的举止确实无可挑剔。

  The news was only too true.

  这消息确实是事实。

  Where in heaven were you then?

  当时你到底在哪里?

  7.用倒装句表示强调

  8.用强调句型表示强调

  It is that It is who

  e.g.It was the headmaster who opened the door for me.

  正是校长为我开的门。

  It was yesterday that we carried out that experiment.

  就是在昨天我们做了那个实验。

 

0
广告位中没上传图片
400-6137-19824小时服务热线:报考指南
广告位中没上传图片
考试资讯
资料下载
Copyright © 2011-2021 Lingdianjy.com All rights reserved 京ICP备:17069480号
京ICP备:17069480号 京公网安备:110111011393号